Research and Recommend Readings

 
 

Below are some peer-reviewed, scientific research articles that may help you understand the concepts of Metabolic Efficiency Training. Some are older, some are newer. Some explain the background of the science that aligns to form Metabolic Efficiency Training while some target the exact principle.  You can look these up in PubMed or Google Scholar. These will be updated as we hear about new studies.


  • Achten, J, Gleeson, M & Jeukendrup, AE. Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34: 92-97. 2002.

  • Achten, J & Jeukendrup, A. Maximal fat oxidation during exercise in trained men. Int J Sports Med 24: 603-608. 2003.

  • Achten, J & Jeukendrup, A. Relation between plasma lactate concentration and fat oxidation rates over a wide range of exercise intensities. Int J Sports Med 25: 32- 37. 2004.

  • Achten, J & Jeukendrup, A. Optimizing fat oxidation through exercise and diet. Nutr 20: 716-727. 2004. 

  • Batatinha, J, et al. Carbohydrate use and reduction in number of balance beam falls. JISSN 10(32): 1-6. 2013.

  • Bergman, BC & Brooks, GA. Respiratory gas-exchange ratios during graded exercise in fed and fasted trained and untrained men. J Appl Physiol 86: 479-487. 1999.

  • Brooks, GA. Mammalian fuel utilization during sustained exercise. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 120: 89-107. 1998.

  • Brooks, GA & Mercier, J. Balance of carbohydrate and lipid utilization during exercise: the “crossover” concept. J Appl Physiol 76: 2253-2261. 1994.

  • Brooks, GA & Trimmer, JK. Glucose kinetics during high-intensity exercise and the crossover concept. J Appl Physiol 80: 1073-1075. 1996.

  • Buell, JL, et al. Presence of metabolic syndrome in football lineman. J Athl Train 608-616. 2008.

  • Burelle, Y, et al. Comparison of exogenous glucose, fructose and galactose oxidation during exercise using 13C-labelling. BR J Nutr 96: 56–61. 2006.

  • Burke, LM, et al. Carbohydrate intake during prolonged cycling minimizes effect of glycemic index of pre-exercise meal. J Appl Physiol 85: 2220-2226. 1998.

  • Carter, SL, et al. Substrate utilization during endurance exercise in men and women after endurance training. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280: E898-907. 2001.

  • Chen, YJ, et al. Effect of pre-exercise meals with different glycemic indices and loads on metabolic responses and endurance running. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 18: 281- 300. 2008.

  • Chen, YJ, et al. Effects of glycemic index meal and CHO-electrolyte drink on cytokine response and run performance in endurance athletes. J Sci Med Sport 12: 697-703. 2009.

  • Coggan, AR, et al. Fat metabolism during high-intensity exercise in endurance-trained and untrained men. Metabolism 49: 122-128. 2000.

  • Costill, DL, et al. Lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of endurance-trained males and females. J Appl Physiol 47: 787-791. 1979.

  • Coyle, EF, et al. Low- fat diet alters intramuscular substrates and reduces lipolysis and fat oxidation during exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280: E391-398. 2001.

  • Fattor, JA, et al. Catecholamine response is attenuated during moderate intensity ex- ercise in response to the lactate clamp. Am J Physiol Endocrine Metab 288: E143-E147. 2005.

  • Fleming, J, et al. Endurance capacity and high-intensity exercise performance re- sponses to a high-fat diet. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 13: 466-478. 2003.

  • Friedlander, AL, et al. Effects of exercise intensity and training on lipid metabolism in young women. Am J Physiol 275: E853-863. 1998.

  • Friedlander, AL, et al. Training-induced alterations of carbohydrate metabolism in women: women respond differently from men. J Appl Physiol 85: 1175-1186. 1998.

  • Friedlander,, AL, et al. Contributions of working muscle to whole body lipid metabo- lism vary with exercise intensity and training. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 292: E107-E116. 2007.

  • Goedecke, JH, et al. Determinants of the variability in respiratory exchange ratio at rest and during exercise in trained athletes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 279: E1325- 1334. 2000.

  • Helge, JW. Long-term fat diet adaptation effects on performance, training capacity, and fat utilization. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34(9): 1499-1504. 2002.

  • Helge, JW, et al. Fat utilization during exercise: adaptation to a fat-rich diet increases utilization of plasma fatty acids and very low density lipoprotein-triacylglycerol in humans. J Physiol 537: 1009-1020. 2001.

  • Helge, JW, et al. Impact of a fat-rich diet on endurance in man: role of the dietary period. Med Sci Sports Exerc 30(3): 456-461. 1998.

  • Horowitz, JF, et al. Lipolytic suppression following carbohydrate ingestion limits fat oxidation during exercise. Am J Physiol 273: E768-775. 1997.

  • Horton, TJ, et al. Fuel metabolism in men and women during and after long-duration exercise. J Appl Physiol 85: 1823-1832. 1998.

  • Jacobs, KA, et al. Endurance training has little effect on active muscle fatty acid, lipoprotein, or triglyceride net balances. Am J Physiol Endocrine Metab 29: E656-665. 2006.

  • Jacobs, KA, et al. Dietary composition influences short-term endurance training induced adaptations of substrate partitioning during exercise. Int J Sports Nutr Exerc Metab 14: 38-61. 2004.

  • Jeukendrup, AE. Regulation of fat metabolism in skeletal muscle. Ann NY Acad Sci 967: 217-235. 2002.

  • Kazemzadeh, Y, et al. Effects of carbohydrate-protein intake during exercise on hormonal changes and muscular strength after 12-week resistance training. Journal of Basic Applied Scientific Research 2(6): 5945-5951. 2012. 

  • Klein, S, et al. Fat metabolism during low-intensity exercise in endurance-trained and untrained men. Am J Physiol 267: E934-940. 1994.

  • Kuo, CC, et al. Effect of exercise intensity on lipid oxidation in fit young adults during exercise recovery. J Appl Physiol 99: 349-356. 2005.

  • Lambert, EV, et al. Nutritional strategies for promoting fat utilization and delaying the onset of fatigue during prolonged exercise. J Sport Sci 15: 315-324. 1997.

  • Lambert, EV, et al. Enhanced endurance in trained cyclists during moderate intensity exercise following 2 weeks adaptation to a high fat diet. J Appl Physiol 69: 287-293. 1994.

  • Lane, A, et al. Influence of dietary carbohydrate intake on the free testosterone: cortisol ratio responses to short-term intensive training. European Journal of Applied Physiology 108(6): 1125-1131. 2010.

  • Manninen, AH. Metabolic effects of the very-low carbohydrate diets: misunderstood “villians” of human metabolism.  J Int Soc Sports Nutr 1(2): 7-11. 2004.

  • McCleave, E, et al. A low carbohydrate-protein supplement improves endurance performance in female athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 25(4): 879-888. 2011.

  • Miller, MA, et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in retired national football league players. Journey of Cardiology 101(9): 1281-1284. 2008.

  • Paoli, A, et al. Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 9(34): 1-9. 2012.

  • Perrot, AA, Clifton, P & Brouns, F. Low-carbohydrate diets: nutritional and physiological aspects. Obes Rev 7(1): 49-58. 2006. 

  • Phillips, SM, et al. Effects of training duration on substrate turnover and oxidation dur- ing exercise. J Appl Physiol 81: 2182-2191. 1996.

  • Romijn, JA, et al. Substrate metabolism during different exercise intensities in endurance-trained women. J Appl Physiol 88: 1707-1714. 2000.

  • Rowlands, DS & Hopkins, WG. Effects of high-fat and high-carbohydrate diets on metabolism and performance in cycling. Metabolism 51(6): 678-690. 2002.

  • Sawyer, J, et al. Effects of a short term carbohydrate-restricted diet on strength and power performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 27(8): 2255-2262. 2013.

  • Sidossis, LS, et al. Regulation of plasma fatty acid oxidation during low- and high- intensity exercise. Am J Physiol 272: E1065-1070. 1997.

  • Spriet, LL. Regulation of skeletal muscle fat oxidation during exercise in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34: 1477-1484. 2002.

  • Storlien, L, et al. Metabolic flexibility. Proc Nutr Soc 63(2): 363-368. 2004. 

  • Tarnopolsky, LJ, et al. Gender differences in substrate for endurance exercise. J Appl Physiol 68: 302-308. 1990.

  • Thompson, DL, et al. Substrate use during and following moderate and low-intensity exercise: implications for weight control. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 78: 43-49. 1998.

  • Tittelbach, TJ et al. Post- exercise substrate utilization after a high glucose vs. high fructose meal during negative energy balance in the obese. Obes Res 8: 496–505. 2000.

  • Volek, JS, et al. Dietary carbohydrate restriction induces a unique metabolic state positively affecting atherogenic dyslipidemia, fatty acid partitioning, and metabolic syndrome. Progress in Lipid Research 47(5): 307-318. 2008.

  • Wong, SH, et al. Effect of pre-exercise glycemic-index meal on running when CHO-electrolyte solution is consumed during exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 19: 222-242. 2009.